As a beloved ex-President, Ronald Reagan almost always gets what he wants these days.
But this week, one of Reagan’s personal wishes was blocked by a federal convict with a typewriter.
Last Friday, Reagan personally telephoned the National Park Service in Washington to add his support to proposed national historic landmark status for a mitten-shaped hill in the Santa Monica Mountains that includes prized Chumash Indian cave paintings.
But on Monday, when the Park Service’s advisory board met, it concluded that its hands were tied. The owner of the land, Ronald Semler, who has veto power over landmark designation, had written a letter opposing the proposed designation.
“I have had my fill of U.S. government bureaucrats and U.S. government employees,” Semler’s letter said. “I have had more than enough experiences, all of them negative.”
Semler, 44, is sitting in Lompoc Federal Prison after pleading guilty to charges stemming from an indictment alleging that his North Hollywood export company sold helicopters to North Korea.
Procedurally, landmark status does not mean much. It offers no protection when the landmark is on private property.
In the wake of Semler’s opposition, the Park Service’s National Park Advisory Board could do no more than get Interior Secretary Manuel Lujan Jr. to declare the cave paintings “eligible for designation.” That assured only that federal agencies must pay heed to the cave’s existence if they engage in construction nearby.
However, in the minds of anthropologists and historians conversant in the history of the 15,000 Chumash Indians who once flourished from Los Angeles to San Luis Obispo counties, the lack of landmark status is a severe disappointment.
According to these experts, the cave paintings on Semler’s 360-acre Saddlerock Ranch above Malibu include an imagination-stirring scene that captures one of California’s most important slices of history.
Among a hundred pictographs of animals, celestial objects and medicine men on rock walls, beneath a massive pink-boulder roof, is a depiction of four men on horses–animals that were not found here until Spanish explorers began settling California in the mid-18th Century.
The images are widely believed to represent the first meeting between Chumash Indians and one of two early parties of Spanish settlers who trekked from Mexico through California: Gaspar de Portola, who, accompanied by Father Junipero Serra, led an expedition to establish missions in 1769, or Juan Bautista de Anza, who commanded 240 men, women and children on a journey in 1775 that led to the founding of San Francisco. Some historians say descriptions in diaries kept by Portola’s party conform dramatically to the Indians’ paintings.
“It’s very important for this to be designated as a landmark. This is the first time that an Indian portrayed a man on horseback,” said Campbell Grant, a Carpinteria author who is a leading authority on Indian rock art in North America.
“There is no other place in Chumash territory where you have a European motif intermixed with the Chumash motif,” said John Johnson, curator of anthropology at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. “It is sort of a Chumash monument in the way we want to make it a national landmark.”
Chumash rock paintings, believed to be as old as 2,000 years at some locations, recorded significant cultural and sacred events. To acquire the bright colors needed for the paintings, the Chumash ground minerals, such as limonite and hematite; mixed them with water, animal fat or plant juice, and daubed cave walls with elaborate narratives in yellow, white, black, red and blue-green paints.
Reagan had long been aware of the historic value of the Saddlerock Ranch’s Chumash site because he once owned the adjoining Yearling Row ranch, subsequently purchased by the state as part of Malibu Creek State Park. He often rode horses on Saddlerock property during his acting days, according to Mark D. Weinberg, a spokesman at Reagan’s Century City office, and Grant Gerson, co-owner of Calamigos Ranch in Malibu.
In 1980, the Park Service attempted to buy Semler’s ranch, which it viewed as a potentially choice section of the new Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. But Semler refused, saying he wanted to live there. He subsequently made the property less attractive to park planners by building a two-story home and planting 11,000 avocado trees on the hillsides.
Nearby ranch owner Gerson said he believed that Semler’s refusal to sell the land was based on principle, not money, and said Semler had been “wonderful” about permitting private outdoor-education programs to view the cave paintings.
Whenever we are discussing an up to date games console and the previous one, we makes reviews and comparisons of the specs, largely. A similar thing were applied to PS3 vs PS4 where one can still take pleasure in many of the gaming benefits even though you’ll be able to ascertain whether it’s time to acquire an upgrade or not.
You most likely believe that your PS3 is sufficient for now, and you don’t need to have an upgrade. That’s okay since you also are intended to find the console that you’re pleasant with and you feel ideal for your gaming necessities. The PS3 also comes in three different forms: the original big model, the PS3 slim, and the PS3 slim with sliding tray disc cover. PS4 only has one design, which can be practically similar to the second design but with more slanted and angular sides with center running lights. Whenever you take a look at the overall sizing, the PS3 Slim is truly a tad larger than the PS4. That’s the moderate difference of PS3 vs PS4 model.
So, how many other factors to take into consideration in regards to PS3 vs PS4 specifications? Certainly, take a first glance at the noise. The PS4 is much quieter than the PS3 even though PS3 alone has already been quiet. Even if you end up spending quite a long time playing games, the PS4 will not be noisy in any way. However, if you get started recognizing that your starts making a sound, you should use the C-Chassis that’s smaller but quieter than the original Playstation 4.You ought to be spending extra attempts, though, if you would like get this C-Chassis type. But if sound can be an important component of your gaming delight, it would be a worthy chance.
In regards to PS3 vs PS4 specifications, normally you can expect the new PS4 to remain tougher – try to think 10 times better, actually. Despite the almost comparable construction and design, the constructions of the two are very different. PS3 is normally using the custom Cell architecture from Sony, which has ended up criticized for being tricky to develop. Meanwhile, the Playstation 4 is implementing the X86 based chip, which has been used in Xbox One and Windows PC. From the processor, they’re just vedy different. Playstation 4 is implementing Jaguar AMD CPU with 2,7 GHz 8 core performance and also AMD GPU Radeon 800 MHz and 8 GB of RAM GDDR5. While Playstation 3 is implementing single core3. 2 GHz CPU with GPU 550 MHz and also 256MB of RAM DDR3.
You will find there’s special service named Playstation Now, letting you stream several Playtation 3 games to Playstation 4, but it’s only applied for certain games only and it will not be working well with gaming titles with discs. A further difference of PS3 vs PS4 is the controller. The brand new controller for Playstation 4 is the DualShock 4 which’s really the developed model from DualShock 3 from PS3. DualShock 4 can be heavier and larger and it also comes with elongated grips. If you want to find out more, take into consideration purchasing the new console games so you can observe how you’re going to enjoyed.